Today playing the theme of the American ban, which has generated greater success in the marketing of alcohol in United States - and not only the traditional American bourbon: whisky, gin, vodka, rum,..., anything that could be mixed in a cocktail-representing a reverse or probably, well studied reverse psychology solution. Thanks to Google Ngram Viewer is has been able to study in depth the effect of this prohibition: using the term "coctel" Google shows as the number of publications - or occurrence of this word in the publications, - to be more precise, alcohol-related increased in the period of time that the ban came into force. The term "Cocktail" was appearing more often in books, magazines and newspapers and increase the percentage of the same, 1920 the appearance of the mentioned term had increased by 150%, from 1920 to 1930 1000% and by 1945 had increased by 1200%.In short, the term cocktail increases its presence in publications of all kinds, this action generates a success in alcohol never thought of United States. They managed to awaken the curiosity of people who would have not shown any interest in this type of beverages in another situation. The forbidden has always represented a hidden attraction to humans and this case is no exception, distillates have positioned themselves as one banned and doubly enjoyed connoisseurs taste. I guess then that the cocktail lovers should thank this prohibition generada en United States, since without it probably not you could enjoy as we do today of one of the infinite and delicious combinations of cocktails prepared in the best way. Arising as a discreet way to enjoy the drink, today its variety and quality made cocktails to involve most of the consumption of spirits.
The oak is a type of flexible and strong wood enables it to be used for the production of barrels for the ageing of the wine, these barrels are characterized by being waterproof and allow the entry of the oxygen to the wines, by allowing its maturation, softens their texture and brings some of the aromas that characterize the wine.The American oak barrels are more resistant, the oak wood is hard and waterproof. Up to 10 barrels of American oak for every cubic metre of wood can produce and its production is cheapest for producers. The pores of oak are larger in relation to the French oak and wood properties are reflected in the wine easier and less time. In addition to this, American oak contributes less tannins wine and greater variety of aroma in relation with the French oak, so it produces hardness in wine in a short time.The French oak barrels are used to bring elegance to the wines, so it used the best wines, this type of oak ageing process is softer, and for the elaboration of the barrels more amount of wood is wasted producing up to 6 per cubic meter of French oak barrels. By having finer pores in relation to the American oak, it transmits its attributes in a slower manner. Some flavours that brings the French oak wine are vanilla, honey and spices.These attributes may vary in greater or lesser extent depending on the toast that Woods underwent or the age of the barrel.Then we have to the French oak barrels are used to higher quality wines from wineries to offer slower oxygenation despite the high cost of production in relation to the American oak barrels, used to get results in less time and at a low cost.Although wineries also used elaborate their own barrels, currently there are few winemakers who manufacture their barrels of handcrafted and most buy them to specialized cooperages.Finally, the increase in barrels of Russian, Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, is remarkable as they have been called. In principle these barrels have a defined origin, Ukraine, are not generally mention due to its proximity with Chernobyl. Although it is economic barrels and an acceptable medium quality, consumers are more reluctant to this type of barrels when they know the origin, and hence the divergence between the name and the source.
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Shoot Thinning: Count versus Non-count Shoots
In a lot of the viticulture guidelines and literature about shoot thinning we differentiate between count and non-count shoots. Before we get into why this matters, let’s differentiate them.
Count shoots are the shoots that arise from a node that we counted at pruning time. So if we left 50 buds, the 50 shoots that in theory arise from them are considered count shoots. Non-count shoots are shoots that come from places that we did not count at pruning.
The photo below shows the count shoots coming off of canes and the non-count coming off of older wood.
Typically it is thought that these non-count shoots have inferior quality fruit than count shoots. For this reason they are often thinned off unless they are growing in blind spots where renewal is needed.
There has not been a lot of work done with the differences in the fruit from count and non-count shoots. The only published work I found was by Wolpert, Howell and Mansfield in 1985 with Vidal (Am. J. Enol. Vitic., Vol. 34, No. 2, 1983). In this study they defined count shoots as those originating more than about a inch from the base of a cane and non-count as anything else.
What they found was that count shoots had about 60% larger clusters, ~5% higher soluble solids and a ~10% lower TA. This is generally what we might expect. The question remains is it the origin that determines the differences in ripening, or is it when they begin to grow?
If we look in the above photo we can see that the lower right non-count shoot looks to be very similar to the count shoots in age. However, the lower non-count shoot in the center of the photo is quite a bit behind in development. It makes sense that the latter would be behind in ripening compared to the count shoots, but what about the non-count that is the same age as the count? I don’t know, but my tendency is to put the emphasis on the age of the shoot (or when it started growing) rather than where it originates.
The Year After: Scenario 2 During my first year in graduation school at Michigan State, the juice grape vineyards had an extremely low yield due to a very wet, cool bloom period. Our plots yielded less than a ton/acre. The following season we were ready to have plots that had a commercial level of fruit on them, however the plots received damage from a late spring frost when the shoots were about 2” long.
At that point we were uncertain how well the plots would yield, but much to the surprise of many, the plots had a full yield. The reason for this was that the secondary buds were extremely fruitful and had as much crop on them as the primaries normally did. The reason for this was the vines had a low yield in the previous year and were able to allocate a lot of resources to the buds. These vines had been canopy managed in the previous year of low yields and were pruned by people experienced with determining which canes were superior. In this situation if the primary buds had not been frosted off, there would have been a bumper crop and if the season was long enough, the vines would have been able to ripen that bumper crop. Since the primary buds had been frosted, a normal cropping level was still achieved.
So the question is, which scenario will you encounter? It’s hard to say. If you performed proper canopy management in the low yield years and there was no winter damage, I would say you are more likely to be in scenario 2. However, I suspect more growers might be in scenario 1. In this situation consider leaving extra buds, but make sure to consider early shoot thinning after you can see how fruitful the shoots are, not when the shoots have gotten too large. This year, leaving high quality canes in less than ideal positions, instead of inferior canes in ideal positions, can also be an option to increase the chances of having a normal crop. Hopefully these practices will not be required in the subsequent growing seasons.
Realistic Grape Production If I look at a cross section of the average grape grower in the Upper Midwest, a large portion of them do not come from a commercial horticultural background. While that has its strengths, it also poses some concerns.
For grape and wine production to have a permanent place in the nontraditional grape growing regions, it needs to be profitable. If I look at some of the growers in our region, if they factor in even a small cost for their labor, I would expect that many would not see a sustainable profit. While some write off grape production as a ‘labor of love’, and you should only do it if you enjoy it, we need to be more efficient.
The general trend for grape prices in our region is that in many cases there are decreases. This hasn’t occurred in every state to the same degree. Vineyards are a long term investment, so if one compares the shifting of row crop acreage between corn, soybeans, wheat, etc, much of that solves some of the supply and demand concerns in a short time. Since a large portion of the cost of a vineyard is the actual first 3 years of establishment, we can’t expect a yearly ebb and flow of numbers of acres like we do in row crops, so if supply is catching up with demand, prices may take a hit.
While some try and silence these ideas, I think we need to face what might come. In some cases the prices of different grape cultivars will be affected differently.
One suggestion I have made to some growers that have an over planted cultivar or a cultivar that is decreasing in price is too not to suddenly jump out of it and replant. Most of the cost of the vineyard is already been put up and so changing cultivars only adds to that.
If you have a cultivar that might only be selling for $XXX, figure out how you can grow it profitably for that price. You may or may not be able to. Before assuming you can’t, look at some practices you may be implementing that may not be cost effective.
When I communicate with growers or perspective grape growers I am often surprised at some of the practices that they are told they need to do, or practices they think are extremely important.
Here are a few practices that I question whether or not they are cost effective to do. If you do them don’t get offended, but question if the benefit outweighs the time involved, because that is the true question. We can micro manage too, but it doesn’t mean it will always lead to more profit or better fruit quality.
A couple weeks ago I had a question about raking of grapevine leaves in the fall and then shortly after that I came across a recommendation posted online from a grower that stated this was important. While some diseases can overwinter on fallen leaves, I can’t see how taking the time to rake and remove them from the vineyard will lead to an economic benefit for growers using standard pest management.
The same goes for removing all canes after pruning. I am fully aware that they can harbor diseases, but taking the time to pull out every cane is not effective. I have seen some growers with pretty slick ways of removing canes to a point where they can do it efficiently, but in most cases it will not lead to more profit. I recommend going through the vineyard with a flail type mower to shred the canes, leaves, etc after pruning. It will assist in them breaking down more quickly which will lead to less harboring of disease. Keep in mind it is impossible to have a completely sanitary vineyard.
Mowing and skirting are two practices that make a vineyard look neat and tidy, but I question their cost effectiveness to the extent that some are using them. We do need weed control in vineyards, but I have seen no evidence to show that mowing a vineyard twice a week to look like a manicured residential lawn will lead to better vine health and fruit quality. The same goes for skirting vines.
While everyone has their own approach to grape production I think we need to question every practice we implement. Its good business, and it’s good for the vineyard because then you have more time to focus on the practices that truly make a difference. We need to be careful we aren’t making an acre a full time job.
ADVICES FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF CASKS
A good wood Franc possesses a smell and typically. The cask of oak contributes to the taste because the tannins of the wood go on to the wine, the tannin that yields the new wood the first year is estimated to 200mg by liter. He contributes also to the bouquet of the wines because it yields his aromatic elements of great nobility.
IMMEDIATE UTILIZATION TO THE RECEIPT TO -
METHOD 1 1) To fill the cask with 20 liters of warm water (60-80°C) and to put the stopper. 2) To stop to rest 2 hours on one of the funds. 3) To give the return to the cask and to stop to rest other 2 hours on another bottom. 4) To empty the cask, to clarify with clean water and to stop to slip.
B - METHOD 2 1) To fill the cask with 20 liters of cold water and to put the stopper. 2) To stop to rest 12 hours on one of the funds. 3) To give the return to the cask and to stop to rest other 12 hours on another bottom. 4) To empty the cask, to clarify with clean water and to stop to slip. RECOMMENDATIONS OF STORAGE BEFORE USING THE CASKS To preserve the plastic of packing. To store in a place with a level of dampness not lower than 75 % and without draughts. UTILIZATION AFTER MORE THAN ONE MONTH OF STORAGE 1) To fill completely the cask with cold water. 2) To stop to rest for 48 hours. 3) To empty the cask. 4) To clarify with clean water and to stop to slip.
PREPARATION OF THE NEW CASKS If the wine presents a volatile acidity inside the normal limits and wants to take advantage of the first impact of the cask: 1) To wash with water paraa to eliminate the remains of powder and in order that the wood is humid. 2) To burn a disc of 10 g of sulphur (except if the FML is wished in cask). 3) To wait the necessary time in order that temine the combustion. 4) To fill the cask with the wine. If the volatile acidity of the wine already is raised, the proportion of new casks is big, and the first impact of the wood wants to be avoided: 1) To wash the cask with water to eliminate the remains of powder. 2) To fill with waters down lightly sulfitada (4 g/hl). 3) To wait 3 or 4 days. 4) To empty and to wash with a bit of water. The acetic acid proceeding from the structure of the wood will be eliminated by the water. 5) To burn a disc of 10 g of sulphur (except if the FML is wished in cask). 6) To wait the necessary time in order that temine the combustion. 7) To fill the cask with the wine.
CLEANLINESS, MAINTENANCE AND PREPARATION OF THE CASKS USED After a decanting is important to clean thoroughly the casks to eliminate the major possible quantity of you tie and tartratos that have settled in his internal surface. A good system is to use warm water to pressure (the tartratos solubilizan easier). If he does not arrange from a system to pressure, way comes from the sigüiente to eliminate the tartratos: 1) To arrange the cask vertically. 2) To fill It up to the half with warm water (60-65 °C). 3) To stop in rest during 30 minutes. 4) To put mouth to down the cask and to leave her in rest during 60 minutes. 5) To empty the cask and everything drain well the water. 6) To burn a disc of 10 g of sulphur and to wait that temine the combustion .. 7) To fill the cask with the wine.
CASKS THAT THEY ARE GOING TO REMAIN A TIME YOU EMPTY His cleanliness it has to be more complete and rigorous than a routine cleanliness as the previous one. Once burned the disc of sulphur of 10 g and finished his combustion, way comes from the sigüiente: 1) To withdraw the disc of sulphur. 2) the cask Covers the possible better thing. 3) Every 1 or 2 months to burn a new tablet of sulphur.
TO RE-USE A CASK THAT HAS BEEN EMPTY A CERTAIN TIME First of all, to eliminate the acetic acid and the sulphuric acid that has been formed from the ethanol and the SO2, to come rigorously from the sigüiente forms: 1) To fill the cask with water sulfitada (4 g/hl). 2) To wait 3 or 4 days. 3) To empty and to wash with a bit of water. The acetic acid and the sulphuric acid originated during the conservation will be eliminated by the water. 4) To burn a disc of 10 g of sulphur (except if the FML is wished in cask). 5) To wait the necessary time in order that temine the combustion .. 6) To fill the cask with the wine.
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Regeneration of barrels El using the barrel or cask for the ageing of wine is very widespread. But seeing times running in the global economy, more than one winemaker arises to renew its Park of barrels. The barrels have expiration date, but what is this? It is difficult to give only one answer, some winemakers and wine producers say that 5 or 6 years, but others think that it is it should not be measured in years, but filled in.In Vinos.com, we joined this last theory, it makes enough sense that tale may continue to be used after 5 years and only 3 fillings. Ideally, you should change it every 6 or 7 fillings, depending on the time that wine has been the barrel, the vintage, the type of wine, etc.Consider the following, a Bordeaux barrels (225 L) capacity costs more than 600 € if it is French oak and about 350 € if it is made of American oak. When it's been 5 or 6 years (6-7 completed), these barrels are converted in a container, since it failed to bring benefits to the wine, is simply a deposit small zero occupying space in the winery, as cruel is the reality. What is the solution? The regeneration of the barrel. The barrels are again the Cooper so look at them and recover, always knowing the new destination that will give after regeneration.Tonelero teacher opens the barrels by removing the rings called heads and if necessary the sotatestas, in order thereby to remove funds and access inside. Once this is done, is to make the azuelado technical consisting in withdrawing those 2 or 3 mm which have been impregnated by the wine thanks to the capillary action through abrasion. Depending on the origin of the oak and the thickness of boards (which is usually about 20 millimeters), the tonelero teacher decides if it withdraws more or less wood on the inside of the barrel.After azuelar the inside of the barrel, is to heat the inside of the barrel to direct fire, in this way, the barrel returns to personality, the Cooper takes again its potential.It is time to re-fit the funds. Then proceeds to sand the outside of the barrel, this mode manages to eliminate blockages and greatly improves the appearance of the barrel.Finally, with barrel already mounted, becomes a back water wash and steam disinfection. The barrel is now ready to receive new wines for 2 or 3 more filled. What price is this? Depending on quantities, but are talking about 80 or 90 € /barrica (gives as the origin of the oak).With this technique the wineries retrieve barrel and save 400% in barrels of American oak and environment to 700 per cent for those made of French oak. The barrel returns to have a value for the wine cellar, although it may not be regenerated again.If you enjoyed this article, we invite you to follow us, vote for him and why not go to visit our shop wines online where you can buy wines of Spain and the world