There are several levels of toasting, which will give different flavors to the wine. A good wood to do casks has to count between his properties: permeability, low porosity, density and size of the ring adapted, high mechanical resistance, facility of split, high permanence. Between the different types of wood, better which fulfills these requirements it is the oak and inside his varieties the Frenchman and the American stand out. The wood of the oak is a hard material, but between his fundamental radioes, which cross longitudinally the trunk, they find a few softer sectors. In case of American oak these sectors are relatively hard, making it practically impermeable; whereas in the Frenchman they are softer and porous, which would allow that the wine should escape.
At present many other names of oak are obtaining marvellous results. Life of a cask - They Provide flavor to the wine and allow the microoxygenation for some 8 years. They are suitable for the separation of sediments for it drinks for some 40 years. His life in qualit wines supposes the renovation of the whole set every 10 years, because of 10 % per year. In the wines of upbringing of the name of origin montilla moriles centenary casks exist in some warehouses and in individuals' hands which guard big exchequers in his interior the wine being renewed every year in October and November in order that the yeasts trasnsformen the wine and they remain.
French oak - Forces to cutting it for split, following the path of the fundamental radiuses, to avoid his soft parts, which provokes an important loss of wood. Of a m ³ of oak approximately 6 casks go out. Gustativamente supplies an aroma and softer flavor, of shade vanilla, by what it is highly valued. American oak - Is cut by saw, without importing the disposition of the radiuses in the duelas, an exceptional performance being obtained. Of a cubic meter of oak approximately 10 casks go out. Gustativamente supplies an aroma and resinous flavor. - Nowadays his use is scanty. In the north and this of the peninsula it predominates over the oak Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, which provide aromas similar to the French oak. In Castile and León and the north of Estremadura it predominates over the oak Quercus
That provides stronger flavors similar to the American oak. The wood of oak allows to smooth the texture of the wine and to stabilize it. In addition, it does that the tannins polimericen giving a more agreeable and round sensation in the mouth. Another effect is that he adds flavor and aroma: to vanilla, coconut, chocolate, toasting, smoke, tobacco, candy, and coffee as it is the toasting of the wood. Oak of the Iberian Peninsula Effect of the cask of oak in the wine - The wood is used in the manufacture of the majority of the wines I dye and in some whites (as the Chardonnay) In guard's wines, the permanency in casks helps to the wine to evolve, thanks to small quantities of oxygen that enter in touch with the wine. The high prices of the casks, restricted budgets, High volumes of production and the use of reservoirs of stainless steel, they have gone to which the use of casks diminishes and is reserved only for those cases that they it deserve. An alternative product to the casks is the use of chips, ulnae and staves of oak that are in use for achieving the effect of a cask but to a very low cost.