The wine production
2.Elaboración white wine.
3.Elaboración Rose wine.
4.Elaboración red wine.
5.Elaboración Breeding and fortified wines.
6.Elaboración and aging of sparkling wines.
7.The Young Wines.
8.The old wines.
9.Crianza and aging.
Información patrocinada por PRODUCTOS AGRI-NOVA Science
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Domestic and international wine 1. INTRODUCTION.
The climate and soil are critical to achieving quality wines, but not least is the winemaking process. So much so that depending on the winemaking procedures used in the preparation, the best grape wine can go bad and a poor one right wine grape.
Exceptions, from early September to mid-October there is the vintage, which already makes a first selection separating damaged bunches.
Then the grapes healthy is transported to the winery in the least aggressive possible, taking special care that the grain is not damaged by excessive pressure, causing a premature fermentation. The experience has been imposed that the transport takes place in small baskets or boxes not exceeding 15 kg capacity.
The download of the grapes is done on the "receiving hopper", a sort of inverted pyramid like a funnel, the grapes will be deposited on an "endless" that lead directly to the crusher, after analysis of the fruit to determine their health status and their sugar content and acids. The grain crusher push just enough to prevent scratches or pips and stalks (cluster structural support) to break and contaminate the wine.
The resulting paste is transferred by means of "pasta drive pump" up the presses, without contact with air to prevent the onset of fermentation. If it is a red wine, prior to pressing the paste must destemming. From here the process will take different paths whether it be red, white or pink, let alone dig or generous.
2. WHITE winemaking.
After pressing separation occurs musts or "desvinado". The pulp with the skins and stems moves to the "cage" and let the juice dripping slowly go by the force of gravity or by gentle pressure. "Mosto bud, flower or tear" are the different appellations receiving these first musts that are higher quality, thin and light, aromatic, soft and fruity.
Flower musts obtained statically, ie, by gravity, to be added with sulfur dioxide in order to delay a fermentation that spontaneously arise due to the dripping time should remain in contact with air.
The remaining pulp is receiving increasing pressure solidifies as lack of fluids. The musts "first", "second" and "third" or "press musts" product of successive pressed, it loses quality. Each producing fermented separately, of course, different types of wine.
At the end there will be only in the press the "sweet or fresh marc". This field far from a waste, has several uses. As fertilizer or animal feed if the skins are fermented in the absence of air (anaerobic), washed by diffusion, we obtain the "pegs" which, distilled, rectified produce alcohols and other derivatives, while distilled spirits is achieved directly pomace, also called pomace or marc.
Before entering the fermentation stage must proceed to "racking" of the must, consisting let stand for several hours so that the solid particles suspended in them they deposit, by decantation, at the bottom of the reservoir.
Fermentation is the process by which the sugars contained in the wort are converted to alcohol, especially, along with other organic compounds. The alcoholic fermentation takes place through the mediation of yeasts (micro fungi found in the soil of the vineyard) that will run out of air metabolizing sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
During this process it is essential to monitor, on the one hand, the density in order to determine the amount of sugar that is left in the wort, and secondly and most importantly, because the excessive temperature can lead to a stop of Death fermentation of yeast.
The final fermentation occurs spontaneously when the sugar content in the wort (residual sugar) does not exceed 4 or 5 grams per liter. Thus there is obtained a dry wine. When the intention is to produce semi-dry or sweet wines, you have to stop fermentation by chemical means (addition of sulfur dioxide) or physical (cooling or heating) when the residual sugar content is right for the wine to be obtained .
The "fermentation virgin", ie without contact with the skins of white must own, produce light wines and very clean. But there are now trends opting for some maceration of the must with the skins, stopping fermentation by cold treatments. This method gives the wine more body, mouthfeel enriches increases its aromatic power, allows for better development in the bottle and gives it a longer life.
Once the fermentation is subjected to two or three wine racking to remove residual solids. This transaction is between November and January to the low temperatures prevent contamination by microorganisms. Then, it proceeds to the selection of grades and corresponding mixtures to achieve the desired result.
Finally there is a "clarification" by substances that ultimately drag it remains possible that have managed to escape suspension for racking and ends with the "leaked" before bottling. 3. PINK winemaking.
It is similar to the processes in the white, with the proviso that uses grape or mixture of white ink and ink.
As a prelude to the fermentation, the wine undergoes a cold maceration (to reach not fermented) with the skins, from which extract the color. This is followed by settling, ie solids are separated from the must, to effect fermentation virgin.
If, however, the color-making process is carried out by fermentation with the skins of the wort (in this case white grape musts and inks), which then produces a claret.
Summarizing, we can say that a rosé is a wine made from red grapes but white or red and white mixed, while a claret is a rosé but made in the manner of the reds.
4. Elaboration of red wine.
It is made from the fermented juice of grapes along with the solid parts of the grapes (skins and pips). In contrast with the white, the resulting paste of crushed, must go through the process of "stripping", which is to separate the grain from scratch, so that during maceration necessary for making color, flavors are not transmitted herbaceous and woody amargosos of this part of the cluster.
It should be clarified that the red wines are held two fermentations. The first, called alcoholic fermentation or "tumultuous" due to the high activity performed at this stage yeasts, sugars are broken down into alcohol with evolution of carbon dioxide while the skin coloring matter dissolved in the wort. The resulting carbon dioxide pushes up the skins, forming a natural barrier called "hat", you should go soak with the juice to turn color extraction in an operation called "traced".
Also, the skin must also be removed periodically, is what is called "bazuqueo".
Once you have the color, proceed to "racking" consisting decant the liquid, already separated from the solid matter, another deposit to be held in the second fermentation called malolactic, which gives the wine finesse and softness, transforming a strong acid such as malic, in another soft and oily, lactic.
The solid residue remaining from the first fermentation, are under heavy pressed to give the so-called "press wine", rich in color and tannins, and should not mix with the rest. Upon completion of the two fermentations, the wine undergoes various racking and clarification and stabilization treatments, varying according to destination and aiming to preserve the clarity of the bottled product.
Finally the wines are selected by quality and bottled immediately, whether they will go to market as young, or will you stay in wooden casks to complete the aging process according to the characteristics of the wine.
5. Making and aging fortified wines.
It is understood by those generous wines having a high alcohol content, generally between 15 and 23 degrees. Although its production is extended by various wine regions, fortified wines are especially linked to the area of Andalusia. Its production is part of a light wine grape Palomino, fruity kind of like the table in the area called "mostovino" with a ranking of about 11 degrees.
The fortified wines catering to different classifications depending on the method of making, aging and employee base wine. So the fines are prepared on a wine whose characteristics fit to get through an entire breeding process without losing their biological characters after adding wine alcohol to reach 15 degrees.
The bulk of amontillado containing added spirit because wine loses certain attributes of thin, slightly oxidized and is halfway between the fine and fragrant. In these circumstances and to avoid disruptions of residual flower wine alcohol is added to reach 17 degrees and thus "killing" the flower.
The wine odorous are not served by its body to fine and therefore do not permeate the total organic phase "fine", or partial amontillado, adding alcohol to reach 19 degrees and less aging cellars oxidatively in fresh. Each of the types of fortified wine is stored in oak barrels of 550 liters.
As for breeding, it is also specific to each of the wines. Raising the fine is performed biological, ie, through the natural action of yeast that are accumulated by acting on the surface forming the "flower" or "flower veil". The amontillados share a biological-oxidative aging to evolve initially as fine (biological) and later by the action of heat and oxygen (oxidative). The odorous have since the beginning of aging in a fully oxidative boot.
In order to outline the characteristics of each of the types of wine down the system: criaderas (boots "farm" wine, oxidative process or biological evolution) and sills (boots that are in the line of " ground "whose wine is ready for bottling). Each type boots are placed one over another. The boots are never empty as it proceeds to fill each gap left in the boots of the floor, after the draws for the bottling operation called "spraying", repeating the process scale hatcheries all over.
The last process by passing the wines before marketing is the "pitch" and is intended to harmonize the qualities.
6. Production and aging of sparkling wines. Called sparkling wines which contain carbon dioxide gas from the action of sucrose and yeast in the second fermentation (the first as normal dry wine in the second bottle on) causing the characteristic evolution of gas in the glass fine slow prolonged. The second fermentation and aging in bottle producing gradual destruction of yeasts, exhausted its function. This results in the characteristic aroma of cava, a yeast. Sparkling wines can be classified into two types depending on the method of preparation: the champagne method (used in the Champagne region of France, from which it takes its name, and the development of cava). In this process the fermentation takes place in the bottle itself.
The second system, used in the "spumanti" sparkling Italian and German, is called Big Granvas or packaging that takes place in large stainless steel tanks for 20 days.
Generally the best quality sparkling are made from champagne method or traditional home. This should be pale, clean, fruity, low in sulfur dioxide and with an alcohol content of not more than 11 degrees.
When you add cuvée tirage (a mixture of sugar and yeast), proceeding to fill bottles, to complete the process with the transfer of the same to the cellars (usually ships underground uniform temperature and humidity) where carry out the fermentation process lasting a minimum of 9 months. Here the bottles are stacked horizontally to concentrate impurities along the bottle and then to gradually tilt the desk, dragging the neck thereof by the bottles removed.
After completing this process and after spending about 20 days in the desks or modern sedimentation parallelepipedal containers, remove the lees or sediment formed by the remains of fermentation. By the final stage, the "disgorgement" delicate process that are needed for the expert hands or precision machinery, the bottle is uncapped proceeding to incorporate the liquor issue, generally came from the same type or old, with different doses of sugar to bring wine its degree of sweetness and particular personality.
The bottles are now ready to be corked and sealed under traditional muzzle system (wire flange subject to an upper plate) or Agrafe (narrow bar which crosses the cork ring attached to the neck of the bottle). Once this process is complete, the wine is ready for labeling and marketing.
The different types of cava most traded are:
- Brut: The driest of all.
- Brut: the most commercial dry with sugar addiction.
- Reserve: the dry cava with a character somewhat older.
- Semiseco: smoother taste with some sweetness.
- Semidulce: sweeter than dry.
Until recently, young wine that wine was synonymous with vulgar, cheap more pricey. Were usually blended wines, lower quality. The natural taste for what has recently become fashionable young wine. Wines flooded with floral and fruity aromas, which turned the youth into a wonderful quality. And in a young wine is nowhere better reflected the caste of the strains and grape flavors.
From this way, young whites and rosés have reached the top spot among the likes of consumers worldwide. Spain, as in many other things, has added late to the young wine when in Italy, France and Germany the old wine was the exception.
At first, in Spain, the development of young white has been the result of the development of viticulture and enology, because many of the grape varieties that were grown were not appropriate for producing these aromatic wines.
Perhaps the Penedes area has been the largest contributor to the renovation and updating of Spanish vineyards, acclimating noble varieties capable of producing the best targets. The careful selection of the most suitable land, modernization of farming methods and new winemaking techniques have made possible the revolution of young wines.
Vinification methods are vital. Can be achieved notable wines based on grapes still commonplace, especially thanks to certain food processes and selection of yeasts.
The temperature control is the most important condition in the process of fermentation of wine in order to preserve its aromas. The large stainless steel tanks with cooling systems began to oust the large deposits of cement in the late 70s.
In the following decade, the young wine begins a progressive rehabilitation and wineries begin to polarize their efforts both in the development of young wines, as long aging.
Moreover, for wineries, processing and bottling of a young wine quality is more profitable because it avoids prolonged storage and therefore less capital tied up in stock besides preventing the wine losses due to evaporation during aging and aging in barrels. Keep in mind that the young wine must not consume more than 3 to 4 years.
We have spoken of the young wines that express the virtue of youth, but we can not forget one too young, although in decline, which represents the largest volume of consumption. It is common wine or "liter" which is something like the remnants of wine, mixed crops, roots and even types of wine, just refreshing spritzer. Is wine without pedigree.
Youth in the wine is not only a quality sought in the white and pink, youth also being installed in the red as a sign of quality. Wines that are becoming a more fresh and fruity, natural flavors released its homogenizing action of wood, whose amargosos tannins are replaced by healthy living and assigned by the grape tannins.
His name came back to the earliest of young wines, almost to consume freshly prepared. Best musts and grape area determined, are intended for the production quality of this wine will be immediately ready for consumption, while still preserves intact the features of the grape.
The French have been the pioneers in developing new wines and "beaujolais" has become a huge commercial success, so much so that each year arrival is awaited with great expectation on the part of consumers, eager to prove how before the first wine of the year.
In its development is necessary to force the fermentation, clarification and stabilization systems subjecting to centrifugation, filtered and cold treatments, unlike what happens with the young wine where such processes take place more slowly and naturally. The main problem is their limited new wine preservation. Heat is the great enemy, with it, the aromas and flavors fade and are lost. It must be consumed in the winter and spring after its harvest and production.
Although the new wine, seems an invention of our time, was the first man began to eat. The last harvest wine was drank that right away, that barely reached the next harvest. For centuries, it was announced his arrival among joys and celebrations welcome. In Spain, however, it was held has been the arrival of the harvest, with those ceremonies that even today are in decline. Are the "Harvest Festival", that during the previous regime were promoted from the 40s. 8. Old wines.
The prestige wines usually enjoy old has a lot of myth. The issue is causing the emotional charge that aura of history that sealed a bottle of time past.
It is difficult to know exactly how long the wine. The wines evolve positively in the bottle for a specified period of time. Beyond this, the wine begins a process of decline. A red wine from Rioja, for example, for about 10 years experiencing an upward trend, followed by a stationary period of not less than five years, to continue a slow and gradual decline. After this time the best thing to happen to a wine that has the same features as a wine of 20 or 30 years, when stored in the best conditions.
All table wines do not age the same way. Cycles can be more or less depending on various factors such as the variety of grape used, the characteristics of a particular harvest or processing methods.
For example, a wine Carignan is a short duration since it takes a long time and become rancid sherry. Likewise, fullness is also earlier than a Rioja wine or Bordeaux, evolutionary cycles both slower and therefore longer. This means that the chances of aging of a wine which are a function of its evolution is slow.
There are wines that are true works of art so that symbolize themselves. They are those who never will leave the warehouses converted almost silent in museums. His label has more sentimental value than the wine itself and its destiny: being collected, as closely guarded curiosity or reminder and, if drunk, only it will be in a very special occasion.
In the depths of Spanish wineries are always dark corners generally gloomy, where lie a number of iconic bottles. Through them we can reconstruct historical avatars and best vintages.
Not completely proven that wine improves with time, since between the beginning and the end does not let things happen. The fervor for old wine is a matter of taste mediated by the inescapable subjectivity that is generated before the scarce or rare, compared to heavy or daily. In short we can say that like the old. And that can achieve the sublime taste if it is an ancient and unique wine, corkage which has deprived the rest of the world to experience a similar feeling.
Before this show, the equilibrium price / performance is no longer considered and the price soars as that fellow travelers are drunk that brand over the years.
Besides grapes, harvesting and processing methods, we must have a series of external factors that can alter the life of a wine: temperature, humidity of the enclosure and the status of the cap. Ideally, a cool and stable temperature, about 18 ° C, 75-80% humidity, ventilation and plug replacement every 15 years or so.
In any case, you have to keep in mind is that the age of the wine is not always a guarantee of quality, not all lend themselves to the upbringing and that older wines not always be trusted when the vintage choosing it. Do not forget that until August 1979 in Spain there was no legislation for the control of vintages or appropriate regulations for the Reserva and Gran Reserva. Until then the less scrupulous not hesitate to put on the label a year that did not correspond to reality, to the point that certain famous crops seemed inexhaustible, and even cases where the year is omitted, playing with consumer uncertainty.
The process of aging of wine is long and delicate, and during the same will acquire a number of characteristics provided mainly by the wood of the barrels.
The wines that undergo aging, but are totally unfit for consumption, are likely to see improved qualities. For selection undergo a series of tastings, blends and analysis used to predict possible outcomes later. He came to be subjected to aging is usually tough, rough, aggressive on the palate with intense color and vivid, aspects that will gradually polishing and refining as they are completing parenting time.
Proper selection of the barrels and the wine residence time in them, will be the main factors that have a decisive impact on the final results of the wine. The barrel is the most used oak with a capacity of 225 liters, called Bordeaux. Now, depending on the origin of the oak and the way they are cut the "staves" (each of the tables that make up the barrel) the transmission of characters will be different.
Should also clarify that the age of the barrels plays an important role in the aging of wines. The barrels new or gently used, transmit their characters faster than old wine, as they have been losing their distinctive contributions to the use and need for greater permanence of wine in them.
The most widespread type of wood is the American oak, usually serrated, due to its lower cost, although increasingly used more French oak barrels, of timber from the forests of Allier, Limousin and Nevers, which provide greater elegant wine with a shorter stay. In any case, what we must not forget is that the barrels never should have a compact structure, seamless and perfectly clean.
Before receiving the wine is burned inside the cask with sanearla and remove sulfur for oxygen. The wine was slowly introduced through a reed reaches the bottom to prevent the formation of foam to displace the sulfur dioxide formed by the combustion of sulfur. Once filled usually closes with a cork coated burlap, or the newest silicone so that they are as airtight as possible.
The environment around the barrels must meet a number of conditions that favor a balanced oxidation, slow and smooth, which is required for a low temperature (13-15 ° C), and without large swings between winter and summer, with a humidity of about 75%.
The barrels will stack in tiers, remaining wine inside, about six months. After this time, proceed to transfer to another cask wine being careful not to mix with the deposits or impurities accumulated in the fund during this time. Usually this operation is repeated with the same frequency until the wine takes on the desired point, provided the criterion of a minimum saving processor and regulated by the relevant agencies.
When the stay terminates barrel proceeds to unify qualities, mixing complementary wines within the same crop. Having achieved the desired wine bottling proceed.
The bottle, like the barrel must be perfectly clean before receiving the wine. The corks must have a minimum length of 44 mm. and free from odors and porosities.
Filled and capped bottles are placed in the "drafts" of wineries horizontally forming "rhymes". The horizontal wine provokes the contact with the cork keeping it moist and swollen and so tight.
The "drafts" are totally isolated places, usually underground, that are not subject to drafts or changes in temperature and the relative humidity should always be above 70%.
The evolution in the bottle is not the same for all wines and is closely related to the quantity and quality of phenological containing compounds, especially the tannins and total acidity.
The optimum of a wine that has evolved to withstand aging in wood, is obtained after spending enough time in the bottle, where develop the "bouquet" by reducing or lack of oxygen and rounded reaching its peak.
Depending on the time remaining in the wines aging phase (both in barrel and in bottle) may display the words in your contraetiqueta Crianza, Reserva or Gran Reserva, according to the following table, which varies according to the parenting section designations of origin: FOSTER minimum periods TYPES OF WINE TOTAL BARREL BOTTLE FOSTER White / Pink 6 months 24 months rest 6 months 24 months Tinto rest BOOK White / Pink 6 months 24 months rest Tinto 36 months 12 months rest GREAT BOOK White / Pink 6 months 48 months rest Tinto 60 months 24 months 36 months